The PCB Fabrication Process

PrintedcircuitboardsThe processing and assembly of printed circuit boards are done in clean surroundings to ensure that the components and the air around them are free from contamination.

Usually, manufacturers have their individual methods, but what you’re going to read is the process being applied in general when it comes to making printed circuit boards.

Substrate Creation

The first part is unwinding woven glass fiber from a roll and then feeding it through a processing station. The glass fibers will then be infused with epoxy resin. After which, the fibers are passed through rollers and given its desired thickness. Any excess resin will be removed as well, and the finished substrate will be produced.

The substrate will now pass through an oven, semicured, and cut in large pieces. The panels will then be stacked in layers with adhesive-backed copper foil in between. They will now be placed in a press that’s subjected to 1500 psi pressures and 340°F temperature for at least an hour. This process will cure the resin and bond the copper foil tightly to the substrate materials.

Hole Drilling and Plating

The substrate panels will now be stacked one on top of the other and pinned as well to avoid movement. They will be placed inside a CNC machine, and will be drilled holes depending on the pattern during the time when the boards are laid out. The holes’ rough parts will be smoothened out to remove any excess materials that stick to the holes.

The holes’ inside surfaces that are intended to give conductive circuits are now plated with copper. The remaining holes –non-conductive ones—are plugged to avoid them being plated.

Pattern Creation

The process for the printed circuits’ pattern can either be ‘additive’ or ‘subtractive’.

•Additive – Copper is added or plated on the substrate’s surface in the preferred pattern, and the rest of the surface is left unplated.

•Subtractive – The substrate’s entire surface is first plated, and those areas that aren’t part of the pattern will be etched away.

Attachments, Coatings and Cuts

The substrate’s edge will now be attached to the contact fingers and connected to the printed circuit. The fingers are masked off to isolate them from the other parts of the board and afterwards plated.

Plating is done using three metals: (1) tin-lead, (2) nickel, and (3) gold. You have to note that the tin-lead coating is really porous and oxidized easily. To protect the coating, the panels are given a hot oil bath, which allows the coating to reflow or melt into a glossy surface.

Every panel will then be sealed using epoxy to shield the circuits from damage as the other parts are being attached. Other markings are stenciled to the boards. The panels will then be cut to individual boards, and the boards’ edges are smoothed.

Final Touches

The boards will now go through several machines that place the components to where they should be situated in the circuit. Small components sometimes use a “chip shooter” which shoots or places the parts onto the board. Larger parts, on the other hand, may use robotics for placement. Other components that are irregularly shaped can be manually placed and fused later.

The components are now fused to the circuits. The fusion is done through surface mount technology and by making the boards go through another reflow process; hence, making the solder paste melt and connect the circuits to the components. Any residue from the solder will be removed using solvents or water through the solder used.

The completed printed circuit boards will now be individually packaged inside protective plastic bags and readied for shipping or storage, unless these boards are to be used immediately.

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Valuing Safety: Showing the Company Also Cares for Its Employees

Capitalism is often seen as an economic system where companies only value the needs and wants of its consumer. Most of the companies’ capital is spent on building either the perfect product or the most effective service, sometimes without being mindful of the welfare of its workers. For several industries, this has resulted to unwanted incidents that continued to threaten the health and wellbeing of people.

For instance, a refinery in Texas was engulfed with a huge fire because the company has, for many years, been violating several hundreds of safety rules imposed by the state. The incident claimed 15 lives and left 170 workers injured. An assessment report made after the incident cited the failure of the company to implement appropriate safety upgrades and protocols that led to the unfortunate collateral damage in surrounding areas.

After multiple agencies finished investigating the events that led to the incident, it was found that several other similar firms are also failing the same safety regulations. The lack of an implementing body for government interventions (such as safety checks on different pieces of equipment, facilities and infrastructure) was determined as the leading cause of why several companies failed to install the necessary precautionary system. In response to these findings, several states started forming agencies that would determine whether corporations within their area follow the standards mandated by state laws.

The United States Department of Labor found that in order to fully-address these incidents, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which is the primary agency in charge of the enforcement of safety regulations, must be given more teeth. OSHA started requiring managers from different sectors to attend safety presentations by industry leaders, safety experts, and experienced corporate planners.

Aside from government-sponsored presentations, there are also recognized third-party firms that offer safety presentations in forms of keynote speeches during company functions attended by concerned personnel. The government has remained firm that company administrations should show value for safety in their work areas. Known speakers in sponsored programs highlighted the importance of creating a culture of safety and show the employees that the company has their back.

motivational speakerThe government understands that there are several jobs that require taking some form of risk. While these jobs may potentially pose a threat to people, it is recognized that their job must be done for the company and the industry to survive. A good example are miners who all have a possible graveyard for a workplace. The geographical integrity of the mines are not as structurally-sound as that of a factory or a high-rise building. There is a chance that when tectonic shifts occur, tremors might send several rocks falling from the ceiling which can either cut-off the route or block what might be the only way out. (There’s no reason to doubt why precious stones are rare, most of them have blood spilled on them.)

Most of the respected organizations who send representatives to make speeches and several rounds of safety presentations in different firms often perform a scientific study about the amount of risk incurred at each employee level. In a construction firm for example, the extent of risk faced by an engineer is different to the extent of risk face by the steel workers. The study represents risk level with a measurable number accounting for the statistics in fatalities and injuries recorded by the Department of Labor. Safety presentations are usually industry-specific, the speakers are adept with industry jargons that low-level employees will easily understand. These presentations also take into account appropriate response and solutions in order to minimize any form of risk incurred across all job levels.

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The Military Challenge Coin Game

custom coinsThere many ways to make sure that militaries are carrying their challenge coins. One of them is through the military challenge coin game. There many different stories about this military challenge coin game. They may vary in different ways but they all have one common goal and that is to make sure that members are always carrying their coins.

The rules vary depending on an organization’s preference. They are not always constant or formalized in a certain unit. Only those members that have this challenge coin can join the challenge and it should be formally by their superior to them. Traditionally, Coin Check was actually exclusive for military units only. The challenge of this coin check has already spread to other organizations such as colleges, clubs, and even other civic organizations. They have also adopted their own versions of the military challenge coin. This Military Challenge Coin Game is meant to boost morale unity and loyalty in an organization or unit.

Military Challenge Coin Game is always announced loudly. This can be made anytime so everyone must always prepare. This is usually done in noisy environments. This coin check challenges are not necessarily played with custom military coins, but with any challenge coin from any group or organizations. The following are the common steps and rules of this Military Challenge Coin Game or also known as Coin Check.

•The Coin Check begins with one member of the group taking out his/her coin, and forcibly placing the coin on the table or bar to create noise. This is a load and clear sign that a coin check is being challenged.

•If the environment is crowded and noisy, one can continuously tap the custom military coins on the table to attract attention in order to initiate the challenge.

•Accident dropping of custom military coins is considered to be an initiation of the challenge to all members.

•All other members of said group must show their military coins too. Everyone must immediately show the customized challenge coin of their organization

•Any member who does not have the coin must buy drinks for the challenger and other member who has their military coins. One round of drinks will do.

•If everyone does produce their custom military coins, then it’s the challenger’s time must buy the next batch of drinks for everyone.

•Those who refuse to buy drinks are sometimes required to return their coin.

Many holders of custom military coins usually carry them inside their pockets or in some other places that can be easily reached. Coins that are put on buckles or chains are not allowed and acceptable for Military Challenge Coin Game. Wearing the coin around one’s neck is acceptable for in this challenge. You can put it in a pouch or small bag so you can wear it around your neck. Damaging or destruction of the coins is strictly prohibited like making a hole in it so you can attach it to any kind of rope. It is not allowed especially if your main purpose is just to make it easier for you to carry it. These kinds of military coins no longer qualify as challenge coins.

coinsIt has always been said that in every challenge or game, there’s always an exception to the rules. There are also Military Challenge Coin Games where they allow the challenged person a step and a reach. There are even instances where an individual with an extra coin is allowed to pass it off to the person closest to him or her. If someone is able to steal a challenge coin, everyone in the group must buy a drink for that person. Some units also provide strict time limits to respond to a challenge.

There are many other stories of the origin of the military challenge coin game. Rules and procedures even vary. But the real purpose of this coin check is to ensure that the unit members carry their military coins. If you are familiar with the history of the challenge coin, you would know that this is for owner’s good and safety. Yes, they are just coins but it is believed that custom military coins already saved many lives.

We have the honor of supplying custom military coins to every branch of the U.S. Armed Services – Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines and Coast Guard.

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Understanding Your Golf Putters

Some golfers think mostly about the drivers, while some ponder about woods. A few, though, are more interested with golf putters. These golf clubs, though among the different types that get the least attention, are actually among the most frequently used, which is particularly true with beginners. If you think carefully, you’d most likely be putting at least twice once you’ve landed on the green, making it 36 putts in a single round.

Golf PuttersGiven the frequency at which you’re using the putter, how well you use this club will easily reflect on your scores. This is why you can’t just have a golf putter that’s just comfortable for your style. Golf putters may vary in clubhead style and length, and one of these may just be what you exactly need to maybe reduce a stroke per hole.

A putter may have the traditional blade, the mallet clubhead, or the heel-toe clubhead. The first type of clubhead is shallow and narrow. Its shaft normally heads toward the heel, though it may also be focused to the center. The feedback with such kind of shaft offers a lot of feedback, which is one of the reasons why it’s best used by low-handicappers. Since this kind of putter is less forgiving, beginners may want to stay with the other types, so the chances of losing shot accuracy are lessened.

Heel-toe golf putters are similarly shaped as the traditional blade. However, there is an added weigh at the toe and heel. This feature provides more perimeter weighting, which means the weight of the clubhead is distributed around it. Perimeter weighting makes golf putter more forgiving, since the MOI (moment of inertia), location of center of gravity, and even the sound you’ll hear as soon as the club hits the ball are altered to make shots straighter with less sidespins despite mishits.

Mallet putters offer larger clubheads to maximize the MOI of the more forgiving clubheads.

With regards to the length, putters may be categorized into three types. The standard putter, which you’ll find at lengths ranging from 32-36 inches, are what beginners may want to first practice with. Once you find this club length working for you, there should be no reason for you to try out the other types.

However, if making a smooth putting stroke is not possible for you simply because of that nervous affliction you endure during short putts, called the ‘yips’, then you’d want to go with the longer golf putters, which include the belly and the broomstick putters.

Belly putters offer more length at around 41-44 inches. The name of the putter type is derived from that extra point of contact you’d be using, which is your belly. This allows for that extra stability when performing your stroke. With this putter, you’d be employing a near-ideal posture as you anchor the putter with your body.

Broomstick putters, which are quite lengthy at roughly 50 inches, are used by anchoring the club to your sternum. These putters help eliminate wrist actions from your putting stroke, so there’s no need to worry even if you’ve been struggling with those yips. Your putting stance will be more upright when using this kind of putter. This is also the ideal option of a putter for seniors who are suffering from joint pains.

As a beginner, there seems to be a whole lot of things you need to understand first before you can actually make a real good swing. Putting shouldn’t be underestimated, as this is a huge factor that makes up your total score. Hence, you should know which among these golf putters perfectly suit you.

Golf PuttersWhether you’re looking for Odyssey, Nike or Ray Cook, Rockbottomgolf has the PERFECT golf putter for you!

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Getting Help In Buying Real Estate Long Island NY

Investing in real estate Long Island NY is a good way to make your money work for you. You should watch out for bad deals, though. Real estate investments are hit-or-miss; many suffered in the economic crisis because of bad real estate deals. You can avoid making these mistakes while searching for real estate Long Island NY by getting a good real estate agent, or better yet, a “rock star” real estate agent.

So what would make a real estate agent a “rock star” or a super agent? There are several factors behind this. He should have the proper training, credentials, and an impressive list of past “made” transactions. He should also be able to do everything he can to get for the client the real estate Long Island NY he or she has been looking for. Find someone like this and the property you want is as good as yours.

Real Estate Long Island NYSo how do you get a real estate agent like this? First, you should do a background check on him. A good way to do this would be to ask your friends, neighbors, or relatives about him. They might have worked with this agent in the past, or they might know about similar agents. Finding real estate agents who will get you the real estate Long Island NY that you want needs to be done properly.

When you actually have picked out a real estate agent who will get you that real estate Long Island NY that you want, you should speak to him and ask him good questions to confirm your selection. You should ask him for his résumé. This will reveal more information about him, most specifically his training, designation, recognitions, and membership in some professional organizations. Next you should ask for his commission rate. More often than not, agents are willing to offer you negotiations for this.

You have to ask him about what makes him a cut above the rest (his past transactions, deals, etc.). This would make sure that you would be getting the best service available. You should also ask them how often they would give a report to you about the real estate Long Island NY that residents are also looking to buy. Based on your assessment, you can now decide whether he is the one you want, or you may look for others.

The last two things you should ask before you get him to start looking for real estate Long Island NY is his marketing plan and information on his previous transactions. The marketing plan should help you see if he will fetch you a good price, and the transactions should show you how the deals he made in the past ended up.

If you have decided to buy real estate Long Island NY, then click here.

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